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    冷拉圓鋼與冷拔圓鋼的區別
    發布日期:2018-06-16       點擊數:251       
    冷拔圓鋼:“冷拔”,指常溫下的拉拔工藝,也是指在材料的一端施加拔力,使材料通過一個模具孔而拔出的方法,模具的孔徑要較材料的直徑小。冷拔圓鋼也就是指通過上述方式加工而成的圓鋼。   冷拔圓鋼在材料市場上,人們一般將冷拉圓鋼和冷拔圓鋼等同,其實兩者有著完全不同的加工方式。在一般情況下人們也就按約定成俗的說法冷拉圓鋼就是指冷拔圓鋼。
    ?
    冷拉指的是在金屬材料的兩端施加拉力強行拉伸金屬材料,使金屬材料產生一定的塑性變形達到提高金屬材料屈服點強度和延伸材料長度的目的。冷拔加工使材料除了有拉伸變形外還有擠壓變形,而冷拉加工材料則只有拉伸變形,所以經冷拔加工的材料要比經冷拉加工的材料性能更好些。冷拔加工一般要在專門的冷拔機上進行,冷拉則簡單得多。
    ?
    鋼材經冷加工后,產生一定的塑性變形,屈服點明顯提高,即強度和硬度明顯提高,但塑性和韌性有所降低,這種現象稱為鋼材的冷加工強化(或冷作強化)。   通常冷加工變形越大,則強化越明顯,即屈服強度提高越多,而塑性與韌性降低也越大。圓鋼在冷拔過程中,不僅受拉,同時還受到擠壓作用。經過一次或多次冷拔后,圓鋼的屈服強度可提高40%~60%,但塑性大大降低,具有硬鋼的性質。
    ?
    冷拔加工必須在專門的冷拔機上才能完成。加工流程一般必須經由以下環節:
    ?
    1、材料處理。
    ?
    采用冷拔材料產品的都是對材料的尺寸精度有較要求的應用環境,冷拔加工能通過對材料的尺寸選擇來決定加工后產品尺寸精度和表面光亮度,一般均選擇比需要的產品外徑尺寸大幾毫米的材料來加工。因此,為了使原材料能經過冷拔模具,原材料必須經過處理。處理的方式是使用專用的機械將原材料的一端碾壓得比模具孔徑小。
    ?
    2、拉拔加工
    ?
    原材料經過前期處理后,就可以上冷拔機進行拉拔加工。為了減少拉拔模具的損耗,在這個過程必須對模具進行潤滑。潤滑的方法一般有二種,一種為油潤滑,一種為專用潤滑材料潤滑。
    ?
    3、最后加工
    ?
    經拉拔后產品還需要進行調直加工、去除夾頭廢料加工、定尺剪切、防銹處理等環節才算最后成品。冷拔圓鋼應該范圍很廣泛,普遍應用在五金配件、家電配件、加工原材料,機加工等等各種熱軋圓鋼滿足不了要求的領域。
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